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Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The impact of British rule The British presence in the region reflected several patterns: Regardless of the political form, however, British rule brought profound changes, transforming the various states socially and economically.
The Brookes and the North Borneo Company faced prolonged resistance before they consolidated their control, while occasional local revolts punctuated British rule in Malaya as well.
In Sarawak infor example, The impact of american rule Chinese gold-mining communities nearly succeeded in toppling the intrusive James Brooke before being crushed, while Muslim chief Mat Salleh fought expanding British power in North Borneo from to The Brookes mounted bloody military campaigns to suppress headhunting practiced at the time by many indigenous peoples of the interior and to incorporate especially the Iban into their domain; similar operations were carried out in North Borneo.
Those who resisted British annexation or policies were portrayed by the British authorities as treacherous, reactionary rebels; many of the same figures, however, were later hailed in Malaysia as nationalist heroes. The British administration eventually achieved peace and security.
In Malaya the Malay sultans retained their symbolic status at the apex of an aristocratic social system, although they lost some of their political authority and independence. British officials believed that the rural Malay farmers needed to be protected from economic and cultural change and that traditional class divisions should be maintained.
Hence, most economic development was left to Chinese and Indian immigrants, as long as it served long-term colonial interests. The Malay elite enjoyed a place in the new colonial order as civil servants. Many Malayan and Bornean villagers, however, were affected by colonial taxes and consequently were forced to shift from subsistence to cash-crop farming; their economic well-being became subject to fluctuations in world commodity prices.
Malaya and British North Borneo developed extractive, plantation-based economies oriented toward the resource and market needs of the industrializing West. British authorities in Malaya devoted much effort to constructing a transportation infrastructure in which railways and road networks linked the tin fields to the coast; port facilities also were improved to facilitate resource exports.
These developments stimulated growth in the tin and rubber industries to meet world demand. The tin industry remained chiefly in immigrant Chinese hands through the 19th century, but more highly capitalized, technologically sophisticated British firms took over much of the tin production and export by World War II.
The rubber tree was first introduced from Brazil in the s, but rubber did not supersede the earlier coffee and gambier plantings until near the end of the century.
By the early 20th century thousands of acres of forest had been cleared for rubber growing, much of it on plantations but some on smallholdings. The British also improved public health facilities, which reduced the incidence of various tropical diseases, and they facilitated the establishment of government Malay schools and Christian mission mostly English-language schools; the Chinese generally had to develop their own schools.
These separate school systems helped perpetuate the pluralistic society. Some Chinese, Malays, and Indians benefited from British economic policies; others enjoyed no improvement or experienced a drop in their standard of living.
Government-sanctioned opium and alcohol use provided a major source of revenue in some areas. Between and several million Chinese entered Malaya especially the west-coast statesSarawak, and British North Borneo to work as labourers, miners, planters, and merchants.
The Chinese eventually became part of a prosperous, urban middle class that controlled retail trade. South Indian Tamils were imported as the workforce on Malayan rubber estates. With most Malays in villages, Chinese in towns, and Indians on plantations, the various ethnic groups basically lived in their own neighbourhoods, followed different occupations, practiced their own religions, spoke their own languages, operated their own schools, and, later, formed their own political organizations.
By the s ethnically oriented nationalist currents began to stir in Malaya, Singapore, and Sarawak. Malay groups either pursued Islamic revitalization and reform or debated the future of the Malays in a plural society, while Chinese organizations framed their activities around political trends in China.
The Borneo states experienced many of the same changes. Vyner Brooke reigned untilfurthering the pattern of personal rule established by his father and by his great-uncle, Sir James Brooke.
Similar to Malaya, Sarawak became ethnically, occupationally, and socially segmented, with most Malays in government or fishing, most Chinese in trade, labour, or cash-crop farming, and most Iban in the police force or shifting cultivation.
Gambier and pepper were planted, with Sarawak emerging as the major world supplier of the latter crop. Later, rubber became dominant, and a petroleum industry developed. Most cash-crop agriculture remained in smallholdings rather than in the plantations that were characteristic elsewhere.
Christian missionary activity and church, Chinese, and Malay schools also generated sociocultural change.Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on January 12, It was designed to study the interior composition of the comet Tempel 1 (9P/Tempel), by releasing an impactor into the comet.
At UTC on July 4, , the Impactor successfully collided with the comet's mtb15.com impact excavated debris from the interior of the nucleus, forming an.
ES Incremental Benefits of the Rule. This regulatory evaluation includes monetized estimates for three types of benefits that can be expected from adopting the revised Section requirements. Impact Category and Category Severity Levels; Impact Category Category Severity Levels; Functional Impact – A measure of the impact to business functionality or ability to provide services: NO IMPACT – Event has no impact.
NO IMPACT TO SERVICES – Event has no impact to any business or Industrial Control Systems (ICS) services or delivery to entity customers. THE IMPACT OF AMERICAN RULE They have treated pupils kindly and gave the pupils free books, pencils and writing paper.
Due to abnormal conditions of fighting, these efforts didn't immediately succeed. After the Philippine-American War, the American teachers called Thomasites were more successful in the campaign to educate the Filipinos.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (``EEOC'' or ``Commission'') is issuing this final rule to amend its Age Discrimination in Employment Act (``ADEA'' or ``Act'') regulations concerning disparate-impact claims and the reasonable factors other . D. Adverse impact and the "four-fifths rule." A selection rate for any race, sex, or ethnic group which is less than four-fifths (4/5) (or eighty percent) of the rate for the group with the highest rate will generally be regarded by the Federal enforcement agencies as evidence of adverse impact, while a greater than four-fifths rate will generally not be regarded by Federal enforcement.