Courtesy of Michail M. Members of the genus play a role not only in cleaning up oil spills—but also the fatty acid residue of whale carcasses, like Neptunomonas japonica pictured here.
The density and composition of the normal flora of the skin varies with anatomical locale. The high moisture content of the axilla, groin, and areas between the toes supports the activity and growth of relatively high densities of bacterial cells, but the density of bacterial populations at most other sites is fairly low, generally in s or s per square cm.
Most bacteria on the skin are sequestered in sweat glands. The skin microbes found in the most superficial layers of the epidermis and the upper parts of the hair follicles are Gram-positive cocci Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus sp.
These are generally nonpathogenic and considered to be commensal, although mutualistic and parasitic roles have been assigned to them.
For example, staphylococci and propionibacteria produce fatty acids that inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast on the skin. But, if Propionibacterium acnes, a normal inhabitant of the skin, becomes trapped in hair follicle, it may grow rapidly and cause inflammation and acne.
Sometimes potentially pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus is found on the face and hands in individuals who are nasal carriers. This is because the face and hands are likely to become inoculated with the bacteria on the nasal membranes.
Such individuals may autoinoculate themselves with the pathogen or spread it to other individuals or foods. Normal Flora of the Conjunctiva A variety of bacteria may be cultivated from the normal conjunctiva, but the number of organisms is usually small.
Staphylococcus epidermidis and certain coryneforms Propionibacterium acnes are dominant. Staphylococcus aureus, some streptococci, Haemophilus sp.
The conjunctiva is kept moist and healthy by the continuous secretions from the lachrymal glands. Blinking wipes the conjunctiva every few seconds mechanically washing away foreign objects including bacteria. Lachrymal secretions tears also contain bactericidal substances including lysozyme.
There is little or no opportunity for microorganisms to colonize the conjunctiva without special mechanisms to attach to the epithelial surfaces and some ability to withstand attack by lysozyme.
Pathogens which do infect the conjunctiva e.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are thought to be able to specifically attach to the conjunctival epithelium. Newborn infants may be especially prone to bacterial attachment.
Since Chlamydia and Neisseria might be present on the cervical and vaginal epithelium of an infected mother, silver nitrate or an antibiotic may be put into the newborn's eyes to avoid infection after passage through the birth canal.
Colonies of Propionibacterium acnes, found on skin and the conjunctiva. Normal Flora of the Respiratory Tract A large number of bacterial species colonize the upper respiratory tract nasopharynx. The healthy sinuses, in contrast are sterile.
Sometimes pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis colonize the pharynx. The lower respiratory tract trachea, bronchi, and pulmonary tissues is virtually free of microorganisms, mainly because of the efficient cleansing action of the ciliated epithelium which lines the tract.ABSTRACT.
Biopreservation systems in foods are of increasing interest for industry and consumers. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria and/or their isolated bacteriocins are considered safe additives (GRAS), useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoiling microorganisms in .
The power to manipulate diseases. Variation of Organic Manipulation. The user can create, manipulate, shape, transform, cause/heal, etc.
all forms of diseases, including their severity, contagiousness, methods of spreading, etc. They can control the organisms that spread diseases, including. The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, which is the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον (bakterion), the diminutive of βακτηρία (bakteria), meaning "staff, cane", because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped..
Origin and early evolution. Eight months ago, I asked the question: Did chiropractic manipulation of her neck cause Katie May’s stroke? Now, it appears, I know the answer, and the answer is yes: Katie May, a model who posed for Playboy and gained a massive following on Snapchat, suffered a “catastrophic” stroke in early February and later died after being taken off life-support.
Manipulation of Bacteria by Genetic Engineering. Genetic manipulation by the deliberate introduction of defined genes into a specified organism is a very powerful technique which is relatively new and certainly in constant development, sometimes at phenomenal rates of progress.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism). GMOs are used to produce many medications and genetically modified foods and are widely used in scientific research and the production of other goods.
The term GMO is very close to the technical legal term, 'living.