References[ edit ] I added some references to the Russian version. It would eb good, to add also English references for teh English version. I add some pics, but I see, they should be arranged better. Is it supposed to be "Terminology"?
Instead Brezhnev used the term "period of developed socialism " Russian: Supporters of Gorbachev have criticised Brezhnev, and the Brezhnev administration in general, for being too conservative and failing to change with the times.
The first few years of Soviet rule were marked by an extraordinary outburst of social and cultural mtb15.comgh the Bolsheviks had maintained complete control of the economy during the civil war, Lenin decided at its end that a partial return to a market economy would help the country recover from the destruction of the previous three years. The Era of Stagnation (Russian: Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (–) and continued under Yuri Andropov (–) and Konstantin Chernenko (–). The term "Era of Stagnation" was coined by Mikhail Gorbachev in order to. Heroic men, heroic women, and animals. See also the section The courage of the bullfighters, which includes material on the courage of the rock climbers and mountaineers, including the remarkable achievements of the free climber Alex Honnold.. This is a very varied section, like some other sections of the page. So much writing in support of bullfighting is suffocating in its exclusion of the.
The majority of scholars set the starting year for economic stagnation atalthough some claim that it began as early as the s. Industrial growth rates declined during the s as heavy industry and the arms industry were prioritized while Soviet consumer goods were neglected.
Others have argued that the lack of reform, or the high expenditures on the military, led to stagnation. Brezhnev has been criticised posthumously for doing too little to improve the economic situation. Throughout his rule, no major reforms were initiated and the few proposed reforms were either very modest or opposed by the majority of the Soviet leadership.
The reform-minded Chairman of the Council of Ministers GovernmentAlexei Kosyginintroduced two modest reforms in the s after the failure of his more radical reformand attempted to reverse the trend of declining growth.
By the s, Brezhnev had consolidated Era of stagnation power to stop any "radical" reform-minded attempts by Kosygin. When Brezhnev died in Novemberthe Soviet Union he handed over to his successor, Yuri Andropovwas much less dynamic than when he assumed power.
During his short rule, Andropov introduced modest reforms; he died little more than a year later in February The economic problems that began under Brezhnev persisted into these short administrations and scholars still debate whether the reform policies that were followed improved the economic situation in the country.
When these failed, the Communist Party restructured perestroika the Soviet economy and government by introducing quasi-capitalist Khozraschyot and democratic demokratizatsiya reforms. These were intended to re-energize the Soviet Union but inadvertently led to its dissolution in Robert Serviceauthor of the History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-first Century, claims that with mounting economic problems worker discipline decreased,  which the Government could not counter effectively because of the full employment policy.
According to Service, this policy led to government industries, such as factories, mines and offices, being staffed by undisciplined and unproductive personnel ultimately leading to a "work-shy workforce" among Soviet workers and administrators.
His reasoning for this stagnation was the growing demand for unskilled workers resulted in a decline of productivity and labour discipline. Sakwa believes that stability itself led to stagnation and claimed that without strong leadership "Soviet socialism had a tendency to relapse into stagnation.
During the international oil crisisgrowth in the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc halted abruptly and stalled for a longer period than in the West  causing the economy to begin stagnating.
The link between these growth rates and the Kosygin reform is, according to Brown, "tenuous",  but says that "From the point of view of communist rulers, the Brezhnev era was in many ways successful".
Economic slowdown began in "when even the official estimates began to show Soviet per capita production no longer closing the gap with the US. Another point which Hanson makes is that, in contrast to the repressive policies of Joseph Stalin and instability-inducing policies of Khrushchev, the Brezhnev era was stable and a "period of comparative plenty".
Snapshots of a Crumbling System, claimed that the hallmark of the Brezhnev era was the status quowhich in turn led to the development of a great paradox ; "the contradictions of what it was and what it could be became obvious".
Industrial development continued to grow rapidly, and in certain sectors surpassed the United States. The failure then, according to Daniels, was that the Soviet economy was not able to deliver in certain sectors; agriculture is a sector where this failure occurred.
Throughout Soviet history, deficiencies in agriculture and consumer goods always existed.
|History & Culture of Russia / Overview||The first few years of Soviet rule were marked by an extraordinary outburst of social and cultural change. Although the Bolsheviks had maintained complete control of the economy during the civil war, Lenin decided at its end that a partial return to a market economy would help the country recover from the destruction of the previous three years.|
|Inflation: Monetary Phenomenon||That price level would not be exceeded for 28 years. Inflation was high by U.|
|1970s Economy||On the whole, the use of fear in this way cannot be justified, and certainly not against the working class and the masses. The resort to the use of fear in order to rule shows the failure to successfully use education, ideology, and democracy to bring about the conscious striving to change society on the part of the people.|
It is suggested that failure to account for it by Gosplan contributed to the stagnation, and ultimately to the collapse of the Soviet economy. During the Nixon Shock and the oil crisiseconomic growth in the rest of the world plummeted but the Soviet hard currency earnings grew as a result of oil exports.
Following the crisis, overall economic activity decreased markedly in the Soviet Union, the Western Bloc and Japanbut in the Soviet Union it was much more pronounced.
Kotz and Weir argued that ultimately, economic stagnation in the Soviet Union could only have been caused by internal problems rather than external.
This is also supported by comparing economic performance preceding the reforms with post-reform economic performance.The transformation in capital structure that has occurred during the era of stagnation is most dramatically highlighted by a comparison between the growth in capital stock in manufactures on the one hand and the broad finance category on the other.
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The contemporary debate on economic policy is dominated by the issue of 'which model of capitalism works best'.
Dictionary of Revolutionary Marxism — St — STAGFLATION The combination of economic stagnation (see below) and inflation at the same time. According to bourgeois economics this was supposed to be impossible, but when it first reared its ugly head in the U.S.
in the late s and s they were forced to admit that it could indeed happen, though they still could not explain why.
Praise for The Great Stagnation “The most debated nonfiction book so far this year As Cowen makes clear, many of this era’s technological breakthroughs produce enormous happiness gains, but surprisingly little economic activity.”—David Brooks, The New York Times “One of the most talked-about books among economists right now.”—Renee Montagne, Morning Edition, NPR.
The Era of Stagnation, associated most strongly with reign of Leonid Brezhnev and gerontocracy, was characterized by problems with central planning and, following Kosygin's reforms, a resistance to change.
This economic stagnation was accompanied by political and social stagnation, at least on the surface. Brezhnev stagnation → Era of Stagnation — Per WP:COMMONNAME, the title "Era of Stagnation" is much more appropriate than "Brezhnev stagnation".
Soviet stagnation theory was established by Mikhail Gorbachev in the s as the Era of Stagnation.