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Overview Overview Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance and has sometimes been considered a drug of abuse. This article summarizes the available data on its neurologic effects.
Classic drugs of abuse lead to specific increases in cerebral functional activity and dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens the key neural structure for reward, motivation, and addiction.
In contrast, caffeine at doses reflecting daily human consumption does not induce a release of dopamine in the shell of the nucleus accumbens but leads to a release of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, which is consistent with its reinforcing properties.
Furthermore, caffeine increases glucose utilization in the shell of the nucleus accumbens only at high concentrations; this, in turn, nonspecifically stimulates most brain structures and thus likely reflects the side effects linked to high caffeine ingestion alone. Moreover, this dose is times higher than the dose necessary to stimulate the caudate nucleus extrapyramidal motor system and the neural structures regulating the sleep-wake cycle, the 2 functions that are most sensitive to caffeine.
Thus, although caffeine fulfills some of the criteria for drug dependence and shares with amphetamine and cocaine a certain specificity of action on the cerebral dopaminergic system, it does not act on the dopaminergic structures related to reward, motivation, and addiction. Tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity has been shown in animals.
In humans, tolerance to some subjective effects of caffeine may occur, but most of the time, complete tolerance to many effects of caffeine on the central nervous system CNS does not occur. In animals, caffeine can act as a reinforcer, but only in a more limited range of conditions than classic drugs of dependence do.
In humans, the reinforcing stimulus functions of caffeine are limited to low or moderate doses, while high doses usually are avoided. Dietary sources include coffee, tea, cola drinks, and chocolate, as well as energy drinks. Whereas moderate consumption rarely leads to health risks, higher doses induce negative effects such as anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, and tachycardia.
After sudden caffeine cessation, withdrawal symptoms develop in a modest number of cases but are typically moderate and transient. The negative effects of high-dose caffeine consumption are seen primarily in a small group of individuals who are caffeine-sensitive. On the basis of a review of science and clinical data, the possibility of adding caffeine withdrawal, but not abuse and dependence, to diagnostic manuals is being considered in the United States.
Consumption of Caffeine Caffeine is present in a number of dietary sources including tea, coffee, cocoa beverages, candy bars, and soft drinks.
The caffeine content of these food items varies, as follows: In a standard mL cup, the content of caffeine ranges from 71 to mg per cup for arabica coffee and from to mg per cup for robusta. If only caffeine consumers are evaluated, the daily caffeine consumption is 2.
Because caffeine is contained in some of the most widely consumed foods and beverages, both in the United States and internationally, it has been extensively investigated in both animal models and human studies.
Although caffeine shares some characteristics with other chemicals of abuse with regard to both psychological and physiologic dependence, important differences exist, especially pertaining to the action of caffeine in central nervous system CNS neurotransmitter systems.
Clearly, further studies are required to better define the short- and long-term roles of caffeine in the neurologic and cardiovascular systems. The combined results of these future studies will be of keen interest to all those who enjoy a warm cup or multiple cups of coffee to start the morning.
Physiologic Effects of Caffeine Caffeine, or 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, is related structurally to uric acid.The obvious signs of sleep deprivation are: excessive sleepiness; yawning; irritability; daytime fatigue; Stimulants like caffeine aren’t enough to override your body’s profound need for sleep.
The Effects of Caffeine on the Human Body Essay Rosalyn Elias Speech Dr. Gilmore July 26, The Effects of Caffeine on the Human Body I. In a quote by Eddie Vedder, I . How does Caffeine affect the human body? Caffeine is the world’s most popular drug (Spiller, ), and can be found in over 60 species of plants throughout the world.
Consumption of caffeine comes from cola, coffee, cocoa, tea, some medications and so much more. Blood clots can originate from almost any part of the body. They will travel through the blood stream until they become lodged in an artery. Learn about Cafcit (Caffeine Citrate) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Caffeine is used in: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants for both prevention and treatment. It may improve weight gain during therapy and reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy as well as reduce language and cognitive delay.
On the other hand, subtle long-term side effects are possible.